My favorite tales

I sometimes forget that multiple sclerosis is a serious disease. And that things like the daily wearing of disposable underwear and typing with my left (non-dominant) hand were hard and demoralizing at first. They only became standard for me after I learned the new way I could do them. 
 
Once when I was feeling really sorry for myself I watched the movie The Bone Collector. I became enamored with the lead character who was completely paralyzed and bed-ridden, but discovered the he could still work as a detective. 
 
He found he needed a team to do his legwork, but that his brain was as sharp or maybe even sharper than ever (and did I mention that he’s played by Denzel Washington? Yummy!).
 
Additionally, every day he has to convince himself not to kill himself. Well really, that would’ve entailed convincing someone else to kill him or help him kill himself, which is probably illegal in his state.
 
Read the book
 
I bought the book and re-read the story. I wondered about the author and how he came to the story. What made him think of it? I don’t want to kill myself but it does make me think of the emotional battles I do often fight. 
 
It doesn’t comfort me to know that doctors now consider chronic depression, which is exponentially more common in MSers than in the general population, to actually be a symptom of our disease, a bug in our brain chemistry.
 
As an aside, one of my friends recently “exercised her right to die” in Oregon. She basically just stopped eating and drinking, and passed away peacefully several days later. So really if he wanted to really do it without help, he could have. But I digress…
 
Watched TV show
 
It has now been made into a weekly TV show. It shows on Friday nights which is, I think, a pretty dead time slot for television. It reflects the wishy-washy confidence of the network I guess.
 
I became fascinated with the workarounds that he found for himself. And in the end I thought if he can do it I can do it.
 
It was the first in my fascination with people who overcome or persist in spite of their disability. I collect the stories now, and revisit them when I’m blue. It reminds me that I have successfully persisted quite a bit!
 
What I’ve learned this week

Tagged : / / / / /

MS med makes cold worse?

I never get annual flu shots because I don’t want to help my immune system in any way. I’m at war with my immune system to a certain extent because it is at war with me.
 
So when I got this cold at first I kinda thought it was cute, because my immune system seems like such a bully.
 
But now three weeks into the monster cold — which I only call monster cold because I don’t usually get colds — it has lost its charm.
 
Seldom sick as a kid
 
I was never a very sickly child. I had chickenpox once, and mumps, which kept me out of school for the requisite time but I was not prone to getting regular colds.
 
As a young adult, I did occasionally catch whatever was going around, but was never down for more than a few days.
 
Once I was diagnosed with MS, though, I noticed how rarely now anything makes me sick. I assume that this is evidence that my immune system is superstrong and to be fought against as it is attacking me by misguided accident.
 
But now obviously my immune system is not in super mode.
 
Gilenya works
 
The fact that I got this cold suggests to me that the current MS med I’m taking is doing it’s job for me, thwarting my immune system by restraining lymphocytes from being released by my thyroid. (See previous post on Gilenya.)
 
However, it is driving me nuts not being able to speak. My laryngitis was so bad at one point: I had called customer support for my new HP laptop and it was voice-response only. It couldn’t figure out what I was asking for. Frustrating.
 
A friend gave me a bottle of Echinacea left over from when she was fighting a cold.  But it’s from 1997 and in small print on the side it says “Not recommended for individuals with auto-immune conditions.”
 
And while there is now some debate over whether MS is in fact an auto-immune disease, I prefer to err on the side of caution.
 
Does OTC negate it?
 
I’m not sure if avoiding taking any cold medication is the wiser decision here.
 
My doctor did advise me that “being on Gilenya doesn’t mean you can’t take symptomatic cold remedies.” But he also concedes that it is “(h)ard to relate this particular problem to Gilenya…”
 
So do I risk feeling better and maybe blocking the great work this drug is doing?
 
I think I’ll just go back to bed and think about this tomorrow!
 
Things I’ve learned this week
 
PNG image

Tagged : / / / / / /

Absolutes, hope and MS

“This house is not for you. You should be in assisted-living. You will never again be able to climb the stairs, or even get into the kitchen, past all this clutter.”
 
I’m sure she’s right. But once I heard the word never I stopped listening.
 
Because in my mind, this is my only life. And I believe that really anything could happen tomorrow. No one knows the future. She can’t know the future. 
 
I could live another fifty years! And I do not want to live another fifty years in assisted-living. I wouldn’t want to pay for that anyway. I’d like to use that money to travel, maybe. Or make accessibility improvements to my current home. Or buy a lakehouse as a second home.
 
Never or always
 
In our house we say, “In case of emergency, break glass.” It’s important to us to have some sort of “safety net.” That is kinda how we plan. Just know what you’re going to do next if it all goes to hell. What is your next, first step?
 
Then don’t spend your precious life, the only one you have, obsessing over it. If you believe in a God or some sort of benevolent hand, it will all work out. If you don’t, you can just say “S@#t happens.” You’ll wake up tomorrow either way. You can start dealing with it then.
 
It happens to me frequently (although some may say I’m just framing these incidents in my life as “emergencies.”)
 
Just one example
 
As an example: the wheelchair.
 
Years ago I asked for a prescription for one from my neurologist. Next I went to a “wheelchair store” and saw that everything was like $3000 and up. And when I contacted my health insurance provider about it, they basically told me to come back after I’d met my $2500 deductible first. 
 
Since I was still walking, albeit with a cane, and there were other health issues going on in our house at the time, I didn’t think it met any level of urgent yet.
 
Some time later, we found a used one for free on Craigslist. As that seat wore out and the wheels began to deteriorate, we found a $300 one at the local Walgreen’s (although pricier than free, it was no $3000!). 
 
This year my most recent one did come from my health insurance.  It is very basic, but they bought it for $1260 and I only paid a copay of $4.13.
 
Time passes, s@#t happens, we live our lives the best, and happiest, way we can.
 
What I’ve learned this week

Tagged : / / / /

MS and Turmeric

After the assault on my liver, I realized that it now needed my protection. So I have embarked on a mission to consciously try to support it.
 
Like limiting my use of non-prescription drugs and my alcohol intake, moving more (exercise: isn’t that always the case?), staying hydrated, and eating healthier.
 
And I started adding Turmeric to my diet.
 
What is it?
 
You’ve likely heard about this: the new big thing in the long line of big things. It’s an herb that has been shown to affect inflammation as well as protect against heart disease among other things.  Since inflammation is such a problem with MS I paid attention.
 
It turns out that not only is consuming turmeric one way to combat chronic inflammation, it also has been used in traditional medicine to tone the liver and may even have a “protective effect” on it.
 
Yay, two for one! So I’m trying to drink turmeric tea regularly and use the spice in cooking, for example. 
 
Where to get
 
It is used in Indian cooking like yellow curries and is often found in mustards (Some food producers use curcumin, derived from turmeric, as a golden-yellow coloring additive for butter, cheese, canned beverages and other products. When looking for it on the nutrition label under ingredients, look for the name of E100.)
 
It can be found in the spice aisle of your local grocery store or ordered online from Amazon, for example.
 
We’ve been growing turmeric now for a couple of years. I can use it as tea by grating it into a tea ball and soaking in hot water with honey.
 
Food ideas
 
Experts suggest that where there’s turmeric, there should be black pepper. It increases the bioavailability of turmeric by 2000 percent! 
 
Others have added a “good fat” like coconut oil to activate it.
 
Some recommendations I found online:
 
I just stirred up a tsp of tumeric and a tsp of coconut oil.  Put a thick layer between two gingersnaps.   Delicious!
 
I use in my coffee in the monrning. A pinch of turmeric, a pinch of cinnamon and little of black pepper. It tastes good and I have had no pains and no infections. I am going on 81 years old.
 
I use in coffee with spices, too, with some almond milk and stevia, Sometimes organic cocoa.
 
You can also add turmeric to sour cream or your favorite dips and serve it with fresh vegetables 
 
Turmeric is especially complementary to egg dishes, such as egg salad, frittatas and omelets.
 
 
Finally,  I found a few other things that turmeric Can be good for:  teeth whitening and arthritis pain 
 
I’m really curious to know if turmeric and chocolate milk would go good together. I’ll keep you posted on that.
 
What I learned this week

Tagged : / / / /

Too old for Gilenya?

In the Gilenya Facebook page we recently had a discussion about this article: Meta-analysis of the Age-Dependent Efficacy of Multiple Sclerosis Treatments
 
A meta-analysis in scientific thinking is a review of multiple previous studies to try and confirm a new hypothesis. In this case, whether the efficacy of MS drugs declines with the age of the patient and finally becomes ineffective.
 
MS Drugs
 
Drugs approved for MS are not drugs that can cure the disease. Nothing can cure the disease. We still don’t even know what causes it.
 
So the drugs approved for MS are basically drugs to halt progression of the disease. (And like I said, the cause of which is still unknown, so what halts the progression is still technically unknown.)
 
At this point there are so many DMT drugs for MS (17 to date) that attempt to work in many different ways. It can be a crapshoot.
 
But this article concludes that all DMT drugs that work on MS begin to decrease in efficacy after the age of 53. I wonder if this is why my doctor keeps asking me how old I am?
 
Are expensive
 
MS drugs, especially in this country, are exceedingly expensive. Not to mention the hundreds of others that aim to treat symptoms.
 
In one example, in 2004 the MS Society estimated that “the major drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for relapsing- remitting MS can cost between $10,000 and $14,000 a year.”
 
Given the news that the cost of prescription drugs in the U.S. is now the highest in the world. Can you imagine what our costs are today?
 
And are difficult to measure
 
And speaking as someone who now has entered the secondary progressive phase of the disease without active exacerbations, it is often hard to tell if the drug I’m taking makes a difference.
 
The only really accurate test we have is the MRI, which can show If there are newer lesions. The idea is that if there are newer lesions the drug that you’re taking is probably not working as its goal is to keep new lesions from forming.
 
But there have been no tests that show that new lesions have any correlation with symptoms. So does the appearance of new lesions on the MRI mean that the disease itself is advancing? Has being on this drug made any difference.
 
What I’m wondering
 
So here’s my dilemma. I have continued to decline over my lifetime.
 
And it is concerning to me that I keep paying x number of dollars to stay on this drug all while studies are showing that stopping it now might not hurt me.
 
On the other hand, other studies show that some people who stop it, even those that switch to something else, experience a major rebound exacerbation resulting in further decline from which I cannot recover.
 
And there is no way to tell in advance how I will respond.
 
Ergo, if I stop the drug based on these latest studies, I will never be able to get back to where I am now if I decline further after doing it.
 
I will be meeting with my neurologist next week and having a chat about this. Stay tuned.
 
Things I’ve learned this week
  • Nasturtium leaves, flowers and pods are all edible
  • Lede is a real word, as in “Way to bury the lede, Amy!” Apparently that’s the noun! I’ve been imagining that phrase wrong.
  • Weight-bearing describes a person who is able to carry their own weight with at least one leg
  • Three inputs to your brain for balance: sight, auditory (vestibular), and proprioception, which is the medical term that describes the ability to sense the orientation of your body in your environment
  • Maybe a picky eater is actually only picky about the method by which the food is prepared
  • Inspiration porn example: ‘He asked her to the prom even though she has Down’s syndrome.’ But should be just like it’s not cool if you say ‘He asked her to the prom even though she is Asian.’
Tagged : / / / / /

Isn’t investing gambling?

It is understandable that we MSers, facing exceptional circumstances, want to protect any money we make from being squandered.
 
Our medications and healthcare costs are astronomical. Also, as a population, we physically may be forced to retire prematurely.
 
Like the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) says “Knowing how to secure your financial well-being is one of the most important things you’ll ever need in life.” 
 
This is especially true for us.
 
The MSer’s finances
 
Traditionally banks paid enough interest to make just saving what we could until retirement prudent. Unfortunately, not anymore.
 
How “safe” is a savings account if you leave all your money there for your working life, but the interest it earns doesn’t keep up with inflation when you are no longer working and need it?
 
This is why many people keep some of their money in savings, but look to investing to amplify their other money. For most people, the only way to attain financial security is both to save and invest over a long period of time. 
 
Generating vs. earning
 
I suggest we think about our finances as needing to generate income rather then simply earning it. Viewing it in terms of generating an income “takes the power out of (the provider’s) hands and places it into your own.”
 
It reminds us that we still have a lot of control over our future, maybe even more than this disease does.
 
I work hard for my money. It makes sense that my money should be working for me, too.  Why should investing be only considered the playground for the wealthy?
 
I resolve that it shouldn’t be. And for those of us in the U.S. with chronic disease, who live in this capitalist society, it is even more imperative.
 
Isn’t it gambling?
 
Well OK, yes and no.
 
For example, my clutter is gambling: 
“I purchased bargains with potential usefulness. I bought things as a gamble. I gambled on the chance that one day, my dreams would come true. I would turn into the kind of person who mended expensive but damaged clothing. I would be the tinkerer who repaired a lamp that made guests gasp in delight…(But) an amazing bargain that ultimately makes my life more difficult isn’t an amazing bargain at all.”
from Dana White’s book Decluttering at the Speed of Life
 
So is playing baseball:  “You can’t steal second base and keep your foot on first.” (Frederick B. Wilcox)
 
Thus I guess that investing is gambling too, but it’s risk that can and should be mitigated.  (You should never risk more than you can lose and still be okay.)
 
So “learn to earn”
 
While we probably aren’t born knowing how to invest, I think everyone should learn at least the basics.
 
Visit the SEC website. If you are still working, take advantage of webinars, podcasts and classes offered by your 401k provider. Be careful about the sources of your info, but you can teach yourself.
 
And ask for help if you’re scared. The MS Society offers free or low-cost consultations with experts
Tagged : / / / / / / /

Lightbulb. Skin is an organ

 
I have never really taken care of my skin. I never got acne, just the occasional pimple. I washed my face at least once a day with Phisoderm or Cetaphil, gentle cleansers.
 
I didn’t moisturize regularly, and applied sunscreen only when I planned to spend the day out doing some activity, like skiing or going to the beach. 
 
But this article made me think about my skin as an organ. According to researchers, it is our largest organ, roughly 8 pounds (3.6 kilograms) and 22 square feet (2 square meters).
 
Could it be affecting or partially responsible for my MS? How could it not?
 
Medline
 
I poked around in the National Library of Medicine’s  PubMed* search: [(skin[Text Word]) AND multiple sclerosis[MeSH Terms]], but didn’t see anything relevant. Mind you, I’m not a scientist or expert in medicine. Caveat Emptor! 
 
*PubMed comprises more than 29 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
 
 
I did see at lot of discussion about MS and sympathetic skin response (SSR) as diagnostic test. The SSR test measures whether the sympathetic nerves of the skin are working.
 
Apparently in a lot of MSers, the response is absent in one or both limbs, for example. In healthy subjects the response is always there. This is interesting, but not something I think I could fix!
 
Google search
 
Next I tried an internet search. Again I found nothing MS specific, although there are some warnings on various drugs about possible skin cancer. Meaning that some subjects began showing skin cancer during or after the trial.
 
There is no way to tell if the skin cancer was already “on board” before the trial started. Or if the drug made them more sensitive to the sun.
 
 
So there is some involvement there!
 
Ergo
 
Yet again I find interesting (to me) information, but nothing conclusive. Just a vague hypothesis: I think I should be taking care of my skin better.  But who knows what that means?
 
For now, I will just accept prevailing theory until proven otherwise. So I resolve to craft a regular, daily, non-negotiable skin care routine, something like this:
  1. Wash my face once a day, every night. Don’t over wash and risk drying out the skin, causing it to produce more oil.
  2. Shower, wash hair at least once a week. Gross I know, I used to shower daily but it’s hard now. Plus I read this and this
  3. Wash my feet every night before bed, slather with lotion
  4. Slather body lotion daily – moisturize, moisturize, moisturize
  5. Use sunscreen daily or at least before venturing outside anywhere
  6. Ask your GP to include a regular skin cancer check in your annual, or see a dermatologist. Some doctors recommend every year!
  7. Drink lots of water
All this is based on my gut feeling about the right thing to do for me. Your results may vary! 🙂
 
Other stuff
Tagged : / / / / /

MS and hot cocoa

Hey, did you read the article that hot cocoa made with high-flavonoid chocolate could ease MS fatigue? I have MS fatigue. I like cocoa. This sounds like a recipe for an informal experiment!
 
The headline of the article I read is Daily Cup of Flavonoid-rich Cocoa May Help Ease MS Fatigue. It details a small trial of 40 MSers, half daily drinking high-flavonoid cocoa made with rice-milk and half drinking low-flavonoid cocoa. (Was the choice of rice-milk just a nod to food allergies?)
 
Fatigue was measured by a quality-of-life self-report, and fatigability was measured by a six-minute walk test (i.e., how far could a user walk in six minutes).
 
The trial concluded that the high-flavonoid cocoa was not only linked to heart and gut health but may “improve fatigue and fatigability” in MS.
 
What is a Flavanoid?
 
They are a type of plant-based antioxidant that occurs naturally in fruits, vegetables, wine, and tea, and are responsible for the vivid colors found in produce, for example. Studies have suggested that flavonoids have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits.
 
One place they are found is in cocoa beans. Usually the cacao tree produces the beans that are then roasted and ground into a paste called the cocoa solids. 
 
Thus, cocoa solids are a good source of flavonoids and the percentage of solids in the product should be listed on the side of a package. You can use this number as a general guide for choosing chocolate made with the highest concentration of solids. 
 
Unsweetened cocoa powder has 88 to 96 percent cocoa solids, for example. Dark chocolate contains 45 to 80 percent, and milk chocolate has only 5 to 7 percent, as the solids are “watered down” with sugar and milk. White chocolate doesn’t contain any.
 
(Was low-flavonoid cocoa achieved by replacing solids with “artificial flavors”?)
 
What about Heat?
 
As cozy as a cup of hot dark chocolate cocoa before bed sounds, it probably isn’t the optimal way to get your flavonoids. According to researchers, boiling causes the highest loss of antioxidants in vegetables, for example.
 
The length of time you expose foods to heat can significantly impact the antioxidant content. 
 
And imagine the roasting process by which the cocoa bean is converted to a cocoa solid. Although roasting is considered a “dry cooking method” and one of the best ways to retain nutrients, it may be reducing antioxident content by as much as 60%.
 
This shouldn’t matter much to us, as the cocoa we buy in the stores has the solids number on the label. But then again, researchers have discovered in some studies that the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Sigh.
 
Bottom line
 
This was a small study; more research is needed of course. But it seems like a thing that would definitely qualify for a go.fund.me effort. Hot cocoa is pretty much universally liked.
 
If you don’t like dark-chocolate cocoa, a square from a dark chocolate bar upon waking seems like it would help. If you want a higher flavonoid count, try making your own cocoa with unsweetened cocoa powder.
 
Maybe it is just a quality-of-life thing. Having a cup of cocoa every day makes you happy. We deserve that. 
 
And even if you only drink milk-chocolate cocoa, as long as there are some solids in it, you are getting a few flavonoids. 🙂
Tagged : / / / / /

Genial Gilenya

I am now taking the oral medication Gilenya (fingolimod). It was first synthesized in Japan in 1992 by chemical manipulation of a naturally occurring antibiotic, and finally approved by the FDA in 2010 as “the world’s first oral MS drug“. 
 
I call it genial because compared to giving myself daily shots, it is just a daily pill I swallow. But “genial” by no means suggests benign. This drug is as toxic as everything else I have tried. Incidences of PML occurring in people taking Gilenya do happen.
 
This Method
 
Everyone’s immune system contains lymph nodes, which are tiny glands containing immune cells (AKA white blood cells) called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are usually helpful, but in MS they get confused and attack the central nervous system (CNS), and permanently damage the myelin sheath.
 
Gilenya activates sensors on your lymph nodes to restrain some white blood cells. That way, these blood cells aren’t released into the bloodstream, where they can attack. (Other lymphocytes are still circulating and available to do their job, watching out for intruders like viruses and bacteria.)
 
It also activates sensors on your heart, which can cause your heart rate to temporarily slow down. So it is recommended that all users be monitored by a medical professional for at least six hours after the first dose.
 
My Experience
 
I have been taking Gilenya since April 2012. This is from an earlier blog post:
 
…I packed my backpack with items to stave off the boredom of sitting around that long: two books I am currently reading [one fiction and one non-fiction], a book of Sudoku puzzles [I’m addicted!], lip balm…
 
We also brought a cooler with yogurt, granola bars, and sandwiches.  [My husband] brought a fingertip pulse oximeter so I could check my pulse regularly on my own.
 
In the end, the whole experience was pretty anti-climactic, which is probably the best-case scenario, really.  I read one book the entire time, and they let us leave before the rush hour started.
 
It was a record heat in SF, which lent the whole outing a surreal feel, and now that I’m onto Day Five, it is like it never happened…
 
It’s now been 6 years and I have tolerated it fine, but it has not made any amazing difference, as I had secretly wished. 
 
Things I’ve Learned
 
Gilenya might increase your risk of skin cancer. It can render a “live” vaccine inert while using it. And it can interact with a multitude of drugs, including vitamins, and herbal products.
 
It is rare but macular edema (a correctable eye condition causing swelling and blurry vision) may occur within the first 3-4 months of starting. It may be confused with an MS exacerbation, so check with your doctor, and consider annual ophthalmology appointments.
 
Finally, I have started to see reports about a “rebound relapse” phenomenon when users go off it. Obviously, once you go off, you should expect that the “door” of all lymph nodes is no longer being guarded so you most likely will resume MS where you left off.
 
But in about 25% of patients, there is an even more aggressive worsening of MS after stopping and these patients “do not return to the level of function that they had before or during treatment“. This worsening most often happens within 12 weeks of stopping. It is definitely something to consider before you start if you think you will want to go off it to get pregnant, for example.
 
Other stuff

Tagged : / / / / / / /

Troublesome Tysabri

In 2004, a new MS drug was approved by the FDA. As opposed to an interferon, Tysabri (natalizumab) is “a monoclonal antibody”.  For more explanation, try this.
 
It blocks white blood cells from binding to molecules which want to drag them into the brain where they would cause inflammation.
 
As an aside, at this point, all the MS meds aim to reduce inflammation in the brain. This is a primary goal. Symptom management. Because we STILL don’t know what causes the disease. Ergo we still can’t say any of them “works” beyond their ability to reduce inflammation in some brains.
 
In healthy (read ‘non-treated’) people this process is desired. It happens when the body is fighting an infection. Without this process, those on it are more susceptible to infection. The body is without one of its tools.
 
Just a year after it was approved, my neuro switched me. 
 
My First Infusion
 
When I began Tysabri I was cautiously optimistic. It was a big deal: a new drug administered by monthly infusion as opposed to those icky (to me) daily shots. So I went for my first infusion on Thur., 2/24/2005.
 
At this point, I needed to walk with a cane, I was experiencing some rapid loss of energy daily (fatigue) and had a bout of double vision. But the infusion went fine, and I was hopeful I’d see improvement soon.
 
I had just moved in with my boyfriend. So the next morning we watched the news together in horror: scrolling across the bottom of the screen was a notice that Tysabri had been taken off the market because several subjects of its latest study had died!
 
The fallen test subjects had developed a severe brain infection, called Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). 
 
PML
 
It is described as “a viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal).”
 
We now know that PML is caused by the JC virus, something we all already carry, but is usually kept in check by a healthy immune system, something we MSers don’t have. 
 
Other risk factors include duration of therapy and presence of the anti-JC virus antibodies. 
 
If they aren’t already triggered, these antibodies might appear after time on Tysabri, for example. This is what doctors are looking for every six months; it’s a “marker”–not that the individual definitively has PML, but that they are more likely to get it.
 
My Second Infusion
 
Eventually the drug was brought back to market, based on the reasoning that its benefits were greater than the risk. And in 2011, my neuro tried me on it again.
 
And again, the first infusion went fine. I had regressed to using a wheelchair to get around and I was tele-commuting full-time from home. Again I felt cautiously optimistic.
 
The next month I was sitting next to another MSer and she was saying how great she was doing on the drug. I nodded and smiled, hoping for the same.  
 
Suddenly she looked at me oddly and said “You’re starting to break out in hives. I can see it on your face! Aren’t you itchy?”
 
The nurse rushed over and discontinued the infusion right away. As she pumped me full of Benadryl and Solumedrol, she told me that I was now hypersensitive to Tysabri. That ruled it out for me ever again.
 
I admit I was disappointed. 
 
This is on the 2019 Safety Information: “Patients who receive TYSABRI for a short exposure (1 to 2 infusions) followed by an extended period without treatment are at higher risk of developing anti-natalizumab antibodies and/or hypersensitivity reactions on re-exposure”
 
Helpful tip: Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist whenever you get a new medicine.
 
Other stuff

Tagged : / / / / / /